Indus Water Treaty: Past Present and Future


  • Shahnawaz Mantoo Islamic University of Science and Technology



India, Pakistan, water, Indus, World Bank, Kashmir


Natural resources are fundamental and imperative for the existence and evolution of human civilizations. Water being most important scarce natural resource has become a contentious political issue in the world. South Asia being a less connected and conflict ridden region, Water related conflicts have been a dominant area of concern. At the time of independence, the boundary line between the two newly created independent countries, i.e. Pakistan and India was drawn right across the Indus Basin, leaving Pakistan as the lower riparian. Dispute thus arose between the two countries regarding the utilization of irrigation waters from existing facilities. The negotiations held under the World Bank, culminated in the signing of Indus Waters Treaty in 1960. The paper will examine the historical background of the treaty; the contentious developments which have arose over the years and will also discuss the Kashmir perspective on the treaty. The paper will also evaluate the present disagreeing arguments of both states over the treaty.


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How to Cite

Mantoo, S. (2021) “Indus Water Treaty: Past Present and Future”, Journal of Global Economy, 16(4), pp. 65–87. doi: 10.1956/jge.v16i4.601.