Nepal: Internal and External Security Challenges


  • Shahnawaz Mantoo Islamic University of Science and Technology



Nepal, Security, Internal, External, External,


The post cold war period is marked by a new multi-dimensional strategic environment giving new focus to international relations and security of small states. Though the US is the only superpower, the world surely is moving towards multi-polarity and interdependence where regional powers and international systems have an increasingly powerful role. In such an environment small states are finding themselves even more vulnerable. The world dynamics is changing very quickly and with it security dimensions are also changing which brings security as well as insecurity to the smaller states like Nepal. The Nepali security dynamics cannot remain separate from the world changes and there are internal as well as external changes which are taking place in the country. More importantly with the recent dramatic changes and adaptation of a new constitution an optimistic political tendencies have emerged but with it the emerging internal crisis have emerged. This paper analyzes the new emerging security challenges Nepal is facing in the evolving new world order and at the same time suggests some authenticate credible and viable security options for it. It analyzes the special characteristics of Nepal and its vulnerability to both traditional and new forms of threats. The paper is divided into five sub-headings which include introduction, theoretical understanding, major security challenges, security options for Nepal and conclusion.


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The Rana dynasty was a Khas dynasty which claimed Rajput ancestry which ruled the Kingdom of Nepal from 1846 until 1951, reducing the Shah monarch to a figurehead and making Prime Minister and other government positions hereditary.
The Shah Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of the Gorkha Kingdom until 1768 and of the Kingdom of Nepal from 1768 to May 28, 2008. The dynasty claimed ancestry in the Parmara clan of Rajputs of Rajasthan India.
King Gyanendra on February 1, 2005 sacked the interim government, suspended civil liberties and imposed emergency rule and took over the government under his leadership and put the major political party leaders under house arrest. The International community including India was against this move and referred it as a serious blow to the democracy in Nepal.
There is a long tradition of exchange of high-level goodwill visits between the two armies. It began in 1950 with the visit of former Indian army chief Gen K M Cariappa. On such goodwill visits, both Army Chiefs of Nepal and India would be conferred with honorary title of Chief of each other’s military due to the historic connection between Nepal and India.
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How to Cite

Mantoo, S. (2021) “Nepal: Internal and External Security Challenges ”, Journal of Global Economy, 16(4), pp. 94–111. doi: 10.1956/jge.v16i4.600.