The The Potential of Sustainable Energy Resources in Eritrea: Solar Energy - An Overview
Energy is the prerequisite and most universal measure of all kinds of work by human beings. Everything in this world is the expression of flow of energy in one of its forms. Sustainable resources of energies are those that do not deplete the Earth’s natural resources and are as environmentally benign as possible. These sources are sustainable in that they can be managed to ensure they can be used indefinitely without degrading the environment (Renewable Energy Association, 2009). The energy resources available can be divided into three types. These are primary energy sources (coal, oil, natural gas, uranium) which provide a net supply of energy, secondary energy sources (solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy etc.) which provide no net energy, and supplementary energy sources (geothermal and tidal) whose net energy yield is zero. Energy is an important input in all sectors of any country’s economy. The standard of living of any given country can be directly related to per capita energy consumption. Energy crisis is due to the rapid growth of world population and the improved standard of living of human beings. The per capita energy consumption is a measure of the per capita income or it is a measure of the prosperity of the nation. As the world population is growing at a faster rate, so the conventional sources of energy are depleting on the one hand and its uses are adversely affecting the environment on the other hand. If it will be continued with the same pace, it may be exhausted by the beginning of the next century. Nuclear energy requires skilled technicians and poses the safety as regards to radioactive waste disposal. Therefore, solar energy and other non-conventional energy sources are the sources; those which are to be utilized in the future. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the Potentials of sustainable energy resources in Eritrea with special reference to solar energy. The present study will also explore the intensity of global solar radiation reaching on a horizontal surface over Eritrea. This will be purely done by assessing the degree of solar energy penetration on Eritrea. The paper aims at discussing the cheaper and cleaner use of which is vital to the Eritrean economy and the environment as well.
2. David, M. Advances in solar thermal electricity technology, Solar Energy 76 (2004) 19.3.1.
3. Debesay, The Solar Energy and its Application in Eritrea: Solar Energy and its Future Prospects in Eritrea; A Senior Essay submitted to Asmara University, Department of Geography, 2004, p.13.
4. Debesay and Ghebrihewet, (2002), Solar Energy Resources in Eritrea: Solar Energy and its Future Prospects in Eritrea; A Senior Essay submitted to Asmara University, Department of Geography, 2004, p.19.
5. DOE Concentrating Solar Power 2007 Funding Opportunity Project Prospectus, Department of Energy, 2007.
6. Habtesion, S.,(2001), Non-renewable Sources of Energy and Poverty Reduction in Eritrea: Solar Energy and its Future Prospects in Eritrea; A Senior Essay submitted to Asmara University, Department of Geography, 2004, p.13.
7. Green Energy-Solar Energy, Photovoltaic (PV), Cell, 2011.
8. Jacobson M7., Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security, Energy and Environmental Science 2009; 2: 148-73, p.4.
9. Martin, CI, Goswami, DY. Solar Energy Pocket Reference, p.45, 2005.
10. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy newsletter, Akshay Urja, Vol. 3, Issue 3, 2009, p.9.
11. PV Resources.com (2009). World’s largest photovoltaic power plants, http://www.pvresources.com/en/top50pv.php.
12. Survey of renewable energy in India. TERI (Tata Energy Research Institute), New Delhi; 2001.
13. Wiser, R, Barbose, G. Peterman, C. Tracking the sun: The installed cost of photovoltaics in the U.S. from 1998-2007, LBNI, February 2009.
14. World PV Report Summary, http://www.solarbuzz.com/marketbuzz 2009-intro.htm.
15. Tsighe,Z., (2002), Sustainable Energy and Environment, Eritrea: Solar Energy and its Future Prospects in Eritrea; A Senior Essay submitted to Asmara University, Department of Geography, 2004, p.4.
16. Tsighe,Z., (2003), Biomass Consumption in Rural Eritrea: Solar Energy and its Future Prospects in Eritrea; A Senior Essay submitted to Asmara University, Department of Geography, 2004, p.9.